 Stocks and bonds calculators and formulas

# Calculators  →  Stocks and bonds

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The bid ask spread formula is the difference between the asking price and bid price of a particular investment. The bid ask spread may be used for various investments and is primarily used in investments that sell on an exchange.

#### Bond Equivalent Yield

The bond equivalent yield formula is used to determine the annual yield on a discount, or zero coupon, bond.

#### Book Value per Share, BVPS

The book value per share formula is used to calculate the per share value of a company based on its equity available to common shareholders. The term "book value" is a company's assets minus its liabilities and is sometimes referred to as stockholder's equity, owner's equity, shareholder's equity, or simply equity.
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#### Capital Asset Pricing Model, CAPM

The capital asset pricing model provides a formula that calculates the expected return on a security based on its level of risk.
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#### Capital Gains Yield

The formula for the capital gains yield is used to calculate the return on a stock based solely on the appreciation of the stock. The formula for capital gains yield does not include dividends paid on the stock, which can be found using the dividend yield.
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#### Current Yield

Current yield is a bond's annual return based on its annual coupon payments and current price (as opposed to its original price or face).

#### Diluted Earnings per Share

Diluted earnings per share, or Diluted EPS, is a firm's net income divided by the sum of it's average shares and other convertible instruments.

#### Dividend Yield, DY

The formula for the dividend yield is used to calculate the percentage return on a stock based solely on dividends.

#### Dividends Per Share, DPS

The formula for dividends per share, or DPS, is the annual dividends paid divided by the number of shares outstanding.

#### Equity Multiplier, EM

Equity multiplier is a financial leverage ratio that evaluates a company's use of debt to purchase assets
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#### Estimated Earnings, EE

The formula for estimated earnings is forecasted sales minus forecasted expenses

#### Preferred Stock, PV

A preferred stock is a type of stock that provides dividends prior to any dividend paid to common stocks
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#### Present Value of Stock with Zero Growth

The formula for the present value of a stock with zero growth is dividends per period divided by the required return per period
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#### Price to Book Value, P/BV

Used to compare a company's net assets available to common shareholders relative to the sale price of its stock
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#### Price to Earnings Ratio, P/E

The price to earnings ratio is used as a quick calculation for how a company's stock is perceived by the market to be worth relative to the company's earnings
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#### Price to Sales Ratio, P/S

The formula for price to sales ratio, sometimes referenced as the P/S Ratio, is the perceived value of a stock by the market compared to the revenues of the company